Book III – Chapter II

1. The appearance and non appearance of knowledge, on contact of the self with the senses and the ob’ects are the marks (of the existence) of the mind.

2. The substantiality and eternality of mind are explained by (the explanation of the substantiality and eternality of) air.

3. From the non simultaneity of volitions, and from the nonsimultaneity of cognitions, (it follows that there is only) one (mind) (in each organism).

4. The ascending life breath, the descending life breath, the closing of the eye lids, the opening of the eye lids, life, the movement of the mind, and the affections of the other senses, and also pleasure, pain, desire, aversion, and volition are marks (of the existence) of the self.

5. Its substantiality and eternality are explained by (the explanation of the substantiality and eternality of) air.

6. There is no visible mark (of the existence of the self), because there being contact (of the senses with the body of Yajnadatta) perception does not arise (that this self is Yajnadatta).

7. And from a commonly observed mark (there is) no (inference of anything in) particular.

8. Therefore (the self is) proved by revelation.

9. (The proof of the existence of the self is not solely) from revelation, because of the non application of the word “I” (to other designates or objects).

10. If (there are) such sensuous observations (or perceptions) as “I am Devadatta … .. I am Yajnadatta,” (then there is no need of inference).

11. As in the case of other percepts, so, if the self, which is grasped by perception, is also accompanied with, or comes at the top of, marks (from which it can be inferred), then, by means of confirmation, the intuition becomes fastened to one and only one object.

12. “Devadatta goes,” “Yajnadatta goes,” in these cases, the belief (that their respective bodies go) is due to transference.

13. The transference, however, is doubtful.

14. Because the intuition ” I ” exists in one’s own self, and because it does not exist otherwhere, therefore the intuition has the individual self as the object of perception.

18. (The self is) not proved (only) by revelation, since, (as ether is proved by sound, so) (the self is) proved in particular by the innate as well as the sensible cognition in the form of “I,” accompanied by the invariable divergence (of such cognition from all other things), as is the case with sound.

20. Plurality of selves is proved by status.

21. (Plurality of selves follows) also from the authority or significance of the Sastras [authoritative texts]