Book II – Chapter II

2. Smell is established in earth.

4. Hotness (is the characteristic) of fire.

5. Coldness (is the characteristic) of water.

6. ” Posterior ” in respect of that which is posterior, ” simultaneous,” “slow,” “quick,” such (cognitions) are the marks of time.

7. The substantiality and eternality (of time) are explained by (the explanation of the substantiality and eternality of) air.

8. The unity (of time is explained), by (the explanation of the unity of) existence.

9. The name time is applicable to a cause, inasmuch as it does not exist in eternal substances and exists in non eternal substances.

10. That which gives rise to such (cognition and usage) as “This (is remote, etc.) from this,” (the same is) the mark of space.

11. The substantiality and eternality (of space are) explained by (the explanation of the substantiality and eternality of) air.

12. The unity (of space is explained) by (the explanation of the unity of) existence.

21. Sound is that object of which the organ of apprehension is the ear.

23. (Sound) is not a substance, since it resides in one substance only.

25. The resemblance (of sound), although it is an attribute, with actions, consists in its speedy destruction.

26. (Sound does not exist before utterance), because there is no mark of (sound as) existent (before utterance),

27. (Sound is not something which only requires to be brought to light), because it differs in property from what is eternal.

28. And sound is non eternal (because it is observed to be produced) by a cause.

29. Nor is (the dependence of sound upon a cause) disproved by its modifications.

30. (Sound is not eternal), because the theory that it requires to be revealed only will entail a defect.

31. Sound is produced from conjunction, from disjunction, and from sound also.

32. Sound is non eternal also because of its mark.

37. The existence of number (in sound) is with reference to the genus.