Book II – Chapter I

1. Earth possesses color, taste, smell, and touch.

2. Waters possess color, taste, and touch, and are fluid and viscid.

3. Fire possesses color and touch.

4. Air possesses touch.

5. These (characteristics) are not in ether.

9. And touch (is a mark) of air.

11. Air is a substance, because it does not contain or reside in substance.

13. The eternality (of air) is evident from its not combining with other substances.

18. But name and effect are the mark (of the existence) of beings distinguished from ourselves.

19. Because name and effect follow from perception.

20. Egress and ingress such is the mark (of the existence) of ether.

23. Action is not produced on account of conjunction.

24. The attribute of the effect is seen to be preceded by the attribute of the cause.

25. Sound is not an attribute of things possessing touch, because of the non appearance of (similar) other effects.

26. Because it combines with other objects, and because it is an object of sense perception, therefore sound is neither an attribute of self nor an attribute of mind.

27. By the method of exhaustion (sound) is the mark of ether.

29. The unity (of ether is explained) by (the explanation of the unity of) existence.

30. (Ether is one), because there is no difference in sound which is its mark, and because there exists no other distinguishing mark.

31. And individuality also belongs to ether, since individuality follows unity.