Book I – Ccapter II

1. Non existence of effect (follows) from the non existence of cause.

2. But non existence of cause (does) not (follow) from the nonexistence of the effect.

3. The notions, genus and species, are relative to the understanding.

4. Existence, being the cause of assimilation only, is only a genus.

5. Substantiality, and attribute ness and action ness are both genera and species.

6. (The statement of genus and species has been made) with the exception of the final species.

7. Existence is that to which are due the belief and usage, namely

(it is) existent,” in respect of substance, attribute, and action.

8. Existence is a different object from substance, attribute, and action.

9. And as it exists in attributes and actions, therefore it is neither attribute nor action.

10. (Existence is different from substance, attribute, and action) also by reason of the absence of genus species in it.

12. (Substantiality is distinct from substance, attribute, and action) also by reason of the absence of genera species in it.

13. (That attribute ness is distinct from substance, attribute, and action is) explained from its existence in attributes.

14. (Attribute ness is distinct from substance, attribute, and action) also by reason of the absence of genera species in it.

16. (Action ness is distinct from substance, attribute, and action) also by reason of the absence of genera species in it.

17. Existence is one, because of the uniformity of the mark, viz., that it is existent and because of the absence of any distinguishing mark.