Book I – Chapter I

1. Now, therefore, we shall explain dharma (righteousness).

2. Dharma (is) that from which (results) the accomplishment of exaltation and of the supreme good.

3. The authoritativeness of the Veda (arises from its) being the Word of God [or being an exposition of dharma].

4. The Supreme Good [of the Predicables] (results) from the knowledge, produced by a particular dharma, of the essence of the predicables, substance, attribute, action, genus, species, and combination [inherence], by means of their resemblances and differences.

5. Earth, water, fire, air, ether, time, space, self (or soul), and mind (are) the only substances.

6. Attributes are color, taste, smell, and touch, numbers, measures, separateness, conjunction and disjunction, priority and posteriority, understandings, pleasure and pain, desire and aversion, and volitions.

7. Throwing upwards, throwing downwards, contraction, expansion, and motion are actions.

8. The resemblance of substance, attribute, and action lies in this that they are existent and non eternal, have substance as their combinative cause, are effect as well as cause, and are both genus and species.

9. The resemblance of substance and attribute is the characteristic of being the originators of their congeners.

10. Substances originate another substance, and attributes another attribute.

11. Action, producible by action, is not known.

12. Substance is not annihilated either by effect or by cause.

13. Attributes (are destroyed) in both ways.

14. Action is opposed by its effect.

15. It possesses action and attribute, it is a combinative causesuch (is) the mark of substance.

16. Inhering in substance, not possessing attribute, not an independent cause in conjunctions and disjunctions, such is the mark of attribute.

17. Residing in one substance only, not possessing attribute, an independent cause of conjunctions and disjunctions such is the mark of action.

18. Substance is the one and the same cause of substance, attribute, and action.

19. Similarly attribute (is the common cause of substance, attribute, and action).

20. Action is the common cause of conjunction, disjunction, and impetus.

21. Action is not the cause of substances.

22. (Action is not the cause of substance) because of its cessation.

23. A single substance may be the common effect of more than one substance.

25. Duality and other numbers, separateness, conjunction, and disjunction (are originated by more than one substance).

27. Substance is the joint effect of many conjunctions.

29. Throwing upwards (is the joint product) of gravity, volition, and conjunction.

30. Conjunctions and disjunctions also (are individually the products) of actions.

31. Under the topic of causes in general, action has been stated to be not a cause of substances and actions.