Chapter II

3. Question: ” Which are the categories, ‘substance and the rest’? ”

4. Answer: Among these the substances are earth, water, light, air, ether, time, space, self (or soul) and mind. These, mentioned in the sutra [aphorism of Kanada] by their general as well as specific names, are nine only; as besides these none other is mentioned by name. (i.i.5)

5. The qualities are: colour, taste, odour, touch, number, dimension, separateness, conjunction, disjunction, distance, proximity, intellect, pleasure, pain, desire, aversion and effort; these are the seventeen that are directly mentioned in the sutra. The word “ca” (and) (in the sutra), however, indicates the other seven: viz., gravity, fluidity, viscidity, faculty [speed] [samskara], the two fold invisible force [dharma and adharma, virtue and vice], and sound. These make up the twenty-four qualities. (i.i.6)

6. Throwing upwards, throwing downwards, contracting, expanding, and going these are the only five actions… : all such
actions as gyrating, evacuating, quivering, flowing upwards, transverse falling, falling downwards, rising and the like, being only particular forms of going, and not forming distinct classes by themselves. (i.i.7)

7. Of generality, or community [universality], there are two kinds, the higher and the lower; and it serves as the basis of inclusive or comprehensive cognition. The higher (or highest) generality is that of “being”; as it is this that extends over the largest number of things; and also because it is this alone that is a generality pure and simple, always serving, as it does, as the basis of comprehensive cognitions. The lower generalities are “substance” and the rest [quality, action, generality, individuality, and inherence], which extend over a limited number of things. These latter, being the basis
of inclusive as well as exclusive cognitions, are sometimes regarded as individualities also. (I.ii. 1-5)

8. Unique particularities reside in the ultimate substances. They are the factors that make for ultimate distinctions among these substances. [Revised tr.]

9. Inherence [samavaya: intimate union, coming together inseparably] is the relationship subsisting among things that are inseparable, standing to one another in the character of the container and the contained, such relationship being the basis of the idea that “this is in that.”