Book V – Chapter II

Examination of clinchers and causes for rebuke

1. The occasions for rebuke are the following: (I) hurting the proposition, (2) shifting the proposition, (3) opposing the proposition, 4) renouncing the proposition, (5) shifting the reason, (6) shifting the topic, (7) the meaningless, (8) the unintelligible,, (9) the incoherent, (10) the inopportune, (11) saying too little, (12) saying too much, (13) repetition, (14) silence, (15) ignorance, (16) non ingenuity, (17) evasion, (18) admission of an opinion, (19) overlooking the censurable, (20) censuring the non censurable, (21) deviating from a tenet, and (22) the semblance of a reason.

2. “Hurting the proposition” occurs when one admits in one’s own example the character of a counter example.

3. “Shifting the proposition” arises [when] upon the instance of one’s proposition being opposed one defends it by importing a new character to one’s example and counter example.

4. “Opposing the proposition” occurs when the proposition and its reason are opposed to each other.

5. A proposition being opposed, if one disclaims its import, it will be called “renouncing the proposition.”

6. “Shifting the reason” occurs when, the reason of a general character being opposed, one attaches a special character to it.

7. ” Shifting the topic” is an argument which, setting aside the real topic, introduces one which is irrelevant.

8. “The meaningless” is an argument which is based on a nonsensical combination of letters into a series.’

9. “The unintelligible” is an argument, which, although repeated three times, is understood neither by the audience nor by the opponent.

10. “The incoherent” is an argument which conveys no connected meaning on account of the words being strung together without any syntactical order.

11. “The inopportune” is an argument the parts of which are mentioned without any order of precedence.

12. If an argument lacks even one of its parts [or: is wanting in any one of the factors of reasoning], it is called “saying too little” [or: "the incomplete"].

13. ” Saying too much the redundant “] is an argument which consists of more than one reason or [and/or] example.

14. “Repetition” is an argument in which (except in the case of reinculcationj the word or the meaning is said over again.

15. “Repetition” consists also in mentioning a thing by name although the thing has been indicated through presumption.

16. “Silence” is an occasion for rebuke which arises when the opponent makes no reply to a proposition although it has been repeated three times by the disputant within the knowledge of the audience.

17. “Ignorance” is the non understanding of a proposition.

18. “Non ingenuity” consists in one’s inability to hit upon a reply.

19. “Evasion” arises if one stops an argument on the pretext of going away to attend another business.

20. If the party admits the flaw in his own thesis, and then urges the same in that of the opponent, this is a case Of ["the admission of an opinion"].

21. “Overlooking the censurable” consists in not rebuking a person who deserves rebuke.

22. ” Censuring the non censurable ” consists in rebuking a person who does not deserve rebuke.

23 A person who, after accepting a tenet, departs from it in the course of his disputation, is guilty of “deviating from a tenet.”

24. “The fallacies of reason” already explained’ do also furnish occasions for rebuke.